Of course, culturally and historically, gay men have been narrowed down where the act of sex itself defines us. But really, if we minimize anal sex and place it on the same shelf as oral or masturbation, how much pressure would that alleviate?
Personally, I found the guiding cultural nudge towards anal sex immensely stressful that it diminished the joyous faucets of sexual expression. Being gay can be hard enough by itself without then also worrying about the pressures from within our own community to conform to some sort of standard.
Or are both bad? And if the association between femininity and gayness is severed, what happens next? The changes over the last two decades may provide some clues. After all, anti-gay attitudes in the United States have declined dramatically since the s and '90s.
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As recently as ten years ago, the public was evenly divided on whether homosexuality should be accepted or discouraged by society. Today, 59 percent of Americans say it should be accepted, according to a Gallup poll released recently. For the past three years, more Americans support same-sex marriage than oppose it. The most recent Pew Research Center survey , conducted this past March, found 49 percent in favor, compared to 44 percent opposed—and other polls have put the level of support even higher. About two-thirds of the public thinks that gay and lesbian couples can be as good parents as heterosexual couples and that they should have the same legal rights as their straight counterparts.
Among young people, especially, anti-gay views are decidedly the exception. About three-quarters of millennials believe homosexuality should be accepted and 70 percent support same-sex marriage. And, in large part, it is young men who have been driving this trend. Ever since we've been asking about it in public opinion polls, men have been more likely than women to espouse anti-gay views—a fact that buttressed the theory that masculinity is intimately connected with homophobia, says Tristan Bridges , assistant professor of sociology at The College at Brockport, SUNY.
But just recently that gender gap has begun to narrow. Among millennials, it's virtually non-existent: Though homophobia is by no means eradicated—after all, Bridges points out, straight men especially still seem be far more comfortable with gay identity than actual gay sex —the largely supportive response to Collins and Rogers coming out would seem to reflect a real and rapid change in anti-gay attitudes, which should certainly be celebrated.
What's far less clear is whether this shift is actually changing the way homophobia is used as a weapon for maintaining traditional masculinity. That's what sociologist C. Pascoe found when she spent a year and a half at a California high school doing research for her book, Dude, You're a Fag: Masculinity and Sexuality in High School. Homophobic slurs were tossed around constantly, but the students insisted they weren't really about sexual orientation.
That's just mean,'" she told me. Instead, boys labeled their peers "fags" for things like dancing, being too emotional, caring about clothing, being incompetent, or not have success with girls. While actually being gay wasn't exactly accepted, Pascoe discovered that it wasn't nearly as bad as being considered an unmasculine guy. As one student told her , "Well, being gay is just a lifestyle. You can still throw a football around and be gay.
But the third boy, who broke both the norms of sexuality and gender, faced such severe tormenting that he eventually dropped out of school. Some scholars see cause for optimism, though. For example, Eric Anderson , an American professor of sociology at the University of Winchester, England, argues that declining homophobia is already starting to create "inclusive masculinities.
As anti-gay attitudes decline and "the stigma of being called gay doesn't sting" anymore, Anderson explained to me, the boundaries of acceptable masculinity expand. If being feminine is no longer considered incontrovertible "evidence" that you're gay, who cares if you bend gender norms?
Anderson's research backs up his theory. He's found that the male college athletes and fraternity members he studied in the U. But others aren't convinced of such a large-scale transformation. Anderson argues that since sports have historically been highly homophobic spaces, other male groups are likely to be moreinclusive than the primarily white, straight, middle-upper class college athletes he has researched.
But studies suggest that, paradoxically, those are the guys who may actually have the most freedom to bend the rules of masculinity. Pascoe describes it as "jock insurance. But I would say that that is the case for a very select group of men. Research on LGBT students' experiences in K schools also suggests that anti-gay harassment may be driven as much by gender anxiety as by homophobia. For starters, the growing acceptance of homosexuality has been slow to translate into a change for LGBT youth, according to GLSEN's national school climate survey , which has been conducted every two years since There has been some improvement: The frequency of anti-gay comments has slowly but steadily decreased over the last decade.
The most recent report from found the percentage of students who reported hearing slurs like "faggot" or "dyke" was about 70 percent, a drop from over 80 percent in Even the pervasive use of the expression "that's so gay" seems to have slightly declined in recent years though "no homo" may have risen to take its place.
An ally works to become part of social change rather than part of oppression. A trans ally is someone who commits to being open-minded and respectful to people who may have different or unconventional gender identities or presentations; who takes the time to learn more about trans people and trans lives; who confronts assumptions around gender roles and gender presentation; and who works to change the misunderstanding and mistreatment of transgender and transsexual people.
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Drugs that are used to block the production or interfere with the action of male sex hormones. Often used in combination with estrogen in MTF hormone therapy; commonly used anti-androgens are spironolactone and finasteride. These practices are often misunderstood as abusive, but when practiced in a safe, sane, and consensual manner can be a part of healthy sex life.
Many men who do not have one or all of these characteristics define themselves as bears, making the term a very loose one. More appropriate Native terms for gender variant people will depend on the group or nation being described. Some use different methods of layering clothing to help hide their chests. Some bind only on certain occasions; some bind all the time. The fear of, discrimination against, or hatred of bisexuals, which is often times related to the current binary standard. This attraction does not have to be equally split between genders and there may be a preference for one gender over others.
A person who is said to take a more submissive role during sexual interactions. A person who identifies themselves as masculine, whether it be physically, mentally or emotionally. Surgical reconstruction to create a more male or more female appearing chest. There are two basic procedures that are usually performed for FTMs: For MTFs, chest surgery may involve breast implants, which are sometimes used to augment the amount of breast development that may have already been achieved through estrogen hormone therapy.
This can be a continual, life-long process for homosexual, bisexual, transgendered, and intersexed individuals. Keep in mind that coming out can happen in pre-, post- and non-transition stages and identities. The term cross dresser is most frequently used to describe a heterosexual male who cross dresses as a female some or all of the time, but does not typically desire gender transition. Short for testosterone cypionate, one of the main injectable forms of testosterone prescribed to FTMs in the United States.
Sexual Orientation (for Parents) - KidsHealth
It occurs when members of a more powerful social group behave unjustly or cruelly to members of a less powerful social group. Discrimination can take many forms, including both individual acts of hatred or injustice and institutional denials of privileges normally accorded to other groups. Ongoing discrimination creates a climate of oppression for the affected group.
In this method, large incisions are made horizontally across each breast, usually below the nipple. The skin is then peeled back so that the mammary glands and fatty tissue can be removed with a scalpel. The muscles of the chest are not touched. Certain areas of hard-to-reach fatty tissue may also be removed via liposuction such as areas near the armpits.
Vasiliy Lomachenko: The Real-Life Diet of the World's Best Pound-for-Pound Boxer
Nipples are usually resized and grafted into place. A term often used by cross dressers to indicate wearing the clothes traditionally associated with your birth sex. The painful and costly procedure of having hair permanently removed. MTFs and some cross dressers remove facial and body hair through electrolysis, while some FTMs undergo electrolysis before certain types of phalloplasty. A term often used by male-to-female cross dressers to indicate being cross dressed and not in traditional male clothes.
Short for testosterone enanthate, one of the main injectable forms of testosterone prescribed to FTMs in the United States. Estrogen therapy is administered to MTFs to induce the presence of feminine secondary sex characteristics. It may also cause softening of the skin, slowing or stopping of scalp hair loss, decrease in muscle mass, decrease in sex drive, decreased erections, and decrease in testicular size.
Estrogen can be taken in pill, patch, or injection forms.
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A term primarily used to describe women who prefer the social company of gay men. While this term is claimed in an affirmative manner by some, it is largely regarded as derogatory. A person who was born in a female body but whose gender identity is male. Also can refer to those assigned female at birth, in the case of intersex people, whose gender identity is male.
Short for Female-To-Male. Sometimes also used by others who are born in female bodies and who move toward masculine or male presentation without hormones or surgery. Going full-time, or living full-time, in the social role of the sex opposite that assigned at birth. Term used to refer to the LGBTQI community as a whole, or as an individual identity label for anyone who does not identify as heterosexual. Unless someone chooses this label for themselves, it may be considered derogatory.
Examples include hairstyle, vocal inflection, body shape, body movements and gestures, facial hair, etc. Cues vary by culture. A condition identified by psychologists and medical doctors wherein a person who has been assigned one gender at birth identifies as belonging to another gender.
A person who, by nature or by choice, conforms to mainstream gender-based expectations of society. The societal, institutional, and individual beliefs and practices that privilege cisgender gender-typical people and subordinate and disparage transgender or gender variant people.
A person who, either by nature or by choice, does not conform to gender-based expectations of society. A gender-variant person whose gender identity is neither male nor female, is between or beyond genders, or is some combination of genders. Scrotal implants may or may not be added during these procedures.